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 Wastewater Composition and Variability as Obtained from Literature Sources
Nathan K. Rothe and Kathryn S. Lowe
Item Number: NRL2006AC-15
Shipping Weight: 0lbs. 0oz.
Price: $20.00
The use of onsite wastewater systems (OWS) is often an economical solution providing wastewater treatment that is protective of the public and environment. The use of prescriptive codes often neglects consideration of physical, chemical, and biological processes utilized by OWS which may result in environmental damage, human health impacts, and unexpected cost to the OWS owner. To overcome these shortfalls, OWS design to achieve specific performance goals is growing. Understanding the composition and variability of raw wastewater to be treated and the septic tank effluent (STE) discharged is critical to both OWS performance design and management. A literature review was conducted of known onsite literature sources with available information assessed to determine the current knowledge of onsite wastewater composition and variability. A summary of the findings specific to single residential sources is presented here. Based on the results of the literature search, data gaps were identified with little information available regarding the raw wastewater composition compared to the more commonly understood septic tank effluent composition. In addition, the greatest amount of information reported was for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids (TSS). While these constituents are key parameters, designers and decision makers are often faced with balancing a variety of desired outcomes or concerns requiring additional understanding of specific waste streams. Finally, literature constituent ranges and median values found during this study were compared to commonly cited literature sources.